The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities marks a revolutionary change not only in its definition of persons with disabilities, but also in its recognition as equal subjects enjoying full and equal human rights and fundamental freedoms. The Treaty clarifies the application of rights to persons with disabilities and obliges States parties to provide reasonable accommodation for persons with disabilities to enable them to effectively exercise their rights, for example to ensure their access to services and cultural life. Creating a “culture of human rights” around the world In order to promote gender equality worldwide, women`s rights are protected in particular by the 1979 United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The Council of Europe adopted the declaration “Making equality between women and men a reality” in 2009. The adoption of this declaration marks 20 years after the adoption of another declaration on equality between women and men. The goal of the 2009 Declaration is to bridge the gap between gender equality in factual and legal terms. It calls upon Member States to address the structural causes of power imbalances between women and men, to ensure women`s economic independence and empowerment, to eliminate entrenched stereotypes, to eliminate violations of women`s dignity and human rights through effective measures to prevent and combat gender-based violence, and mainstreaming a gender perspective in governance. All human beings are equal as human beings and by virtue of the inherent dignity of every human being. All persons are entitled to the enjoyment of their human rights without discrimination of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, ethnicity, age, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, disability, property, birth or other status, as declared by the human rights treaty bodies. We spoke to children all over the country, asked them questions about human rights and got simple, honest and funny answers. All human rights instruments contain guarantees of non-discrimination and equality, whether they are UN, Council of Europe, EU or OSCE standards. At the United Nations level, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination entered into force in 1969 and is monitored by an expert body, the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.

The Committee receives and considers States` reports on compliance with the Treaty, has an early warning mechanism to prevent situations exacerbated by intolerance that could escalate into conflict and serious violations of the Convention, and a procedure for receiving individual complaints, if authorized by the State concerned. The European Union`s Race Directive, on the other hand, applies to the use and supply of goods and services by the state and private actors. The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) is a Council of Europe mechanism. Founded in 1993, ECRI`s mission is to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance at pan-European level and with a view to the protection of human rights. ECRI`s activities shall include all necessary measures to combat violence, discrimination and prejudice to which persons or groups of persons are exposed, in particular on grounds of race, colour, language, religion, nationality and national or ethnic origin. ECRI`s members are appointed by their governments on the basis of their in-depth knowledge of the fight against intolerance. They are appointed personally and act as independent members. ECRI`s main programme of activities includes: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) recognizes that children also have human rights and that persons under the age of 18 need special protection to ensure respect for their full development, survival and well-being. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) prohibits and condemns racial discrimination and obliges States parties to take measures to bring it to an end by all appropriate means, whether committed by public authorities or by other means. A number of international human rights treaties and other instruments adopted since 1945 have given legal form to inherent human rights and developed the corpus of international human rights. At the regional level, other instruments have been adopted to address the specific human rights concerns of the region and to provide for specific protection mechanisms.

Most states have also adopted constitutions and other laws that formally protect basic human rights. While international treaties and customary law are the backbone of international human rights law, other instruments such as internationally agreed declarations, guidelines and principles contribute to its understanding, implementation and development. Respect for human rights requires the establishment of the rule of law at the national and international levels. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the most important of all human rights instruments. Meetings of the UN General Assembly or UN conferences on specific topics often result in a UN declaration or a non-binding document, also known as “soft law”. All States, by virtue of being Members of the United Nations or participating in the Conference, are deemed to agree with the declaration they have made. The recognition of human rights should also result from an agreement between a State and its people at the national level. When human rights are recognized at the national level, they become first and foremost a political obligation of a State towards its people.

The Covenant deals with rights such as the free movement of persons; equality before the law; the right to a fair trial and the presumption of innocence; freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of opinion and expression; peaceful assembly; Freedom of association; participation in public affairs and elections; and the protection of minority rights. It prohibits arbitrary deprivation of life; torture and cruel or degrading treatment or punishment; slavery and forced labour; arbitrary arrest or detention; arbitrary invasion of privacy; war propaganda; Discrimination; and advocacy of racial or religious hatred. The most innovative feature of the Human Rights Council is the universal periodic review. This unique mechanism involves a review of the human rights record of the 193 UN member states every four years. The review is a cooperative State-led process under the auspices of the Council, which provides each State with an opportunity to present measures and challenges taken to improve the human rights situation in its country and comply with its international obligations. The review aims to ensure universality and equal treatment of all countries. Human rights are a cross-cutting issue in all United Nations policies and programmes in the key areas of peace and security, development, humanitarian assistance and economic and social affairs. As a result, virtually all United Nations bodies and specialized agencies are involved to some extent in the protection of human rights. Some examples are the right to development, which is at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals; the right to food, defended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, labour rights defined and protected by the International Labour Organization, gender equality proclaimed by UN Women, the rights of children, indigenous peoples and persons with disabilities.

The UN Security Council consists of five permanent members: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States, and ten temporary members. Temporary members are elected for two years. The Security Council takes decisions on urgent matters, which often include measures to combat human rights violations. Its most recent resolution was adopted on 14 July. July 2020 and refers to the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council also has the power to impose sanctions on countries that violate international law. Arguably, UN Security Council resolutions are a form of international law. Question: Why do you think that even states with very poor human rights records are ready to sign international human rights treaties? The United States is an example of a country that is both a party to international agreements and has enacted its own human rights guarantees. The United States Constitution guarantees all citizens of the United States fundamental freedoms, such as equal protection of the law (Amendment XIV). In addition, the United States had passed laws that further protected the human rights of its citizens.

A good example is civil rights legislation (Title 42, Chapter 21 of the United States Code). The United States is also bound by treaty obligations. It has ratified the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, is a member of the United Nations and has signed and/or ratified other human rights treaties.

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