Jenkinson and Benson (2010) also presented teachers with a list of barriers to student participation in physical education and physical activity in three categories: institutional, instructional and student-related. Teachers were asked to rate the top five barriers they perceived. The results are presented in Table 5-6. An analysis of motor skills, strategic knowledge, physical activity and fitness in 180 children in grades 4 and 5 showed that current sport standards were difficult to achieve (Erwin & Castelli, 2008). Of the study participants, less than half (47%) were rated as motor, 77% showed sufficient progress in knowledge, only 40% were in the healthy fitness zone for all five components of the Fitnessgram fitness assessment, and only 15% were physically active for 60 minutes or more per day. Apparently, most children did not meet the benchmark performance measures for this stage of development. This evidence highlights the need to increase physical activity inside and outside of physical education to improve opportunities for students to meet the standards. If standards are the measure of quality, teachers in a given school make a difference in terms of how well students can achieve the standards. Research has clearly shown that certified sport specialists can provide students with more and longer opportunities to meet physical activity guidelines than teachers trained to teach physical education (McKenzie et al., 2001). When teachers are taught strategies to promote strong or moderate physical activity in physical education, a significant increase in physical activity is expected (Lonsdale et al., 2013). The role of certified sport specialists in health-promoting physical education has become increasingly important (McKenzie, 2007). The evidence is clear about the need for an ongoing effort to train physical education teachers and the need for schools to continue to employ them as a lead teacher who designs and fully implements health-promoting physical education programs.

The 2012 Shape of the Nation report documents the many reasons why students may be exempt from physical education. Thirty-three states allow school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other physical education activities. The most common replacements are the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC), interscholastic sports, marching band, cheerleading and community sports. Twenty-eight states allow schools and school districts to grant exemptions/exemptions from physical education time or credit requirements. Grounds for exception/exemption include health, physical disability, religious beliefs and early completion; Six states leave the land to local schools or school districts. While it seems reasonable for some alternative programs, such as JROTC or cheerleading, to accumulate physical activity comparable to physical education, these programs do not necessarily provide students with the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to participate in health-promoting physical activities throughout their lives. There are no studies on the effects of exemptions or exemptions from physical education. Currently, there is no evidence that students receive any portion of the recommended 60 minutes or more of vigorous or moderate physical activity through alternative activities approved by their school. Online physical education offers another way to help students meet physical education standards if they don`t have room for face-to-face classes on their schedule, need to catch up, or are simply looking for an alternative to traditional physical education. On the other hand, online courses may not be a successful form of teaching for students with poor time management or technological skills. According to Daum and Buschner (2012), online learning is changing the educational landscape despite limited empirical research and conflicting results as to its effectiveness in producing student learning.

Through a survey of 45 online physical education teachers, the authors found that nearly three-quarters of the classes they taught did not meet the national guideline for high schools of 225 minutes of physical education per week. Most classes required physical activity 3 days a week, while six classes required no physical activity. Teachers have expressed support, hesitation and even resistance to online physical education. Marco Legal of the Venezuelan Education System The justification that supports the Bolivariano Education System is based on the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela as a maximum legal instrument, Rector of Development and Coexistence in the Republic, where the. Barriers other than those described above impede efforts to improve and maintain quality physical education. This section discusses these barriers and some solutions to overcome them. The focus on high-stakes tests and the pressure on academic performance in core subjects had unintended consequences for other subjects throughout the school day. In developing master plans, school site managers were forced to make difficult decisions regarding time allocation for “non-core” subjects. The average reduction in teaching time in these “non-essential” subjects was 145 minutes per week. However, as noted above, there is no evidence that physical education and physical activity have a negative impact on student achievement or achievement (CDC, 2010). On the contrary, positive academic outcomes (e.g. improved classroom behaviour, cognitive development, and academic performance) were associated with physical education and physical activity (see Chapter 4).

These standards emphasize the need for children to know the basic concepts of movement and to be able to execute basic movement patterns. It is essential that physical education teachers promote motor success and teach children basic skills that build their repertoire of movements and enable them to participate in various forms of play, sports and other physical activities (see also Chapter 3). While several evidence-based physical education programs – such as the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) and Children`s Active Sport, Play and Recreation (SPARK) – are implemented in schools, many innovative programs have also been implemented nationally that are motivating and contribute to skills development. while engaging teens in fun and fitness-focused activities. These programs include water sports such as sailing, kayaking, swimming, canoeing and paddle boarding. Adventure activities such as Project Adventure; winter sports such as skiing and snowshoeing; and extreme sports such as in-line skating, skateboarding and cycling. A separate report, Physical Education Matters: Success Stories from California Low Resource Schools That Have Achieve Excellent Physical Education Programs (San Diego State University, 2007), notes that schools with innovative teaching strategies were able to transition to high-quality programs when funding was available from various grant funds. including federal funding. These strategies included wellness centres and active play that encouraged students to become more physically active. Administrative support was found to be a key factor in program redesign, as well as employee engagement and career development. Having certified physical education teachers and making physical education a priority in schools were other key factors.

External factors have strengthened programs, including support for the school district, a sports coordinator, and the use of government accountability standards. Other ways to overcome barriers to high-quality physical education include scheduling times for physical education, ensuring appropriate class sizes, providing non-traditional physical education activities, making lessons more active and fun for all students, and recognizing the importance of role models, personal investment and participation in physical activity. among employees. Barriers to the implementation of quality physical education. Hours devoted to physical education are decreasing at all grade levels. The gaps between policy and implementation in terms of specific time management contribute to (more…) Physical education is physical fitness and skill training that engages psychomotor learning to promote that physical condition. It is education through physical activity for the entire development of a person`s body and mind. It was once excluded in most societies, giving more importance to literacy. But once literacy became widespread, it was included in school curricula because people knew that fitness helped the mind. In the West, people have developed an educational system for physical education. And as more and more public schools used these education systems, physical education joined the bachelor`s degree program, majoring at Columbia University in 1901 and later elsewhere. Two large-scale intervention studies – SPARK and CATCH – are discussed in this section as examples of how programs can be structured to increase vigorous or moderate physical activity in physical education.

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