Many garden centers and pet food stores offer organic fertilizers and garden supplements. Other ARS studies have shown that algae used to capture nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural fields can not only prevent water contamination of these nutrients, but can also be used as organic fertilizers. ARS scientists originally developed the “algae lawn scrubber” to reduce nutrient runoff and increase the quality of water flowing into streams, rivers and lakes. They found that this nutrient-rich algae can be applied to cucumber and corn seedlings after drying, resulting in growth comparable to synthetic fertilizers. [30] A. Increase both nutrient efficiency and soil organic matter content It improves the movement of water in the soil and gives structure to the soil over time. Organic matter feeds beneficial microbes and makes the soil more pleasant to grow. The use of organic fertilizers in melon production is of great concern as compost produced under poor conditions or recontaminated with human pathogens as a result of improper handling may pose a high risk of biological contamination during production. The materials traditionally used for the production of organic fertilizers are animal waste, crustaceans and vegetable waste. The first two represent an important source of human pathogens, which must be inactivated during the organic fertilizer production process. The origin of the materials can define the type of microorganisms present in the compost if it is not produced correctly. Bird waste can primarily contribute to salmonella contamination, while enterotoxigenic E.

coli from pig waste or E. coli O157:H7 from cattle can be imported. Aerobic and anaerobic processes in the production of organic fertilizers reach temperatures sufficient for the elimination of human pathogens, but it is necessary to verify the elimination of human pathogens in compost by microbiological analysis of each batch produced. Organic fertilizers are made from extracted rocky minerals and natural plant and animal materials. These include ingredients such as manure, guano, dried and powdered blood, crushed bones, crushed mussels, finely powdered fish, phosphate rock and wood. Although inorganic or synthetic fertilizers may contain organic ingredients, the main difference is that they act quickly to simply feed the plant without actually enriching the soil, and can contribute to the toxic accumulation of salts in the soil if used excessively. Organic fertilizers are different types of fertilizers derived from plant substances, minerals, animal substances, etc. Here are some of the most common types: Compost provides plants with few nutrients, but it ensures soil stability by increasing organic matter. Compost helps microorganisms multiply, which in turn breaks down decaying plant matter into substantial bioavailable nutrients that the plant can easily assimilate. [28] Compost does not need to be entirely plant-based: it is often made from a mixture of carbon-rich plant waste and nitrogen-rich animal waste, including human feces, to remove pathogens and odours.

[29] The positive role of manure in increasing flower and stigma yield was reported by Amiri (2008), who found that manure application improves soil physical and chemical properties and increases cation exchange capacity and uptake of N, K and Ca by saffron plants. According to Koocheki and Seyyedi (2015b), the number of large daughter tubers and the N and P concentrations of daughter tubers in composted cattle manure were significantly higher than in chemical fertilizers (Table 7.5). Behdani et al. (2017) found that an organic production system had a significant positive effect on the growth of saffron daughter tubers and the number of flower buds compared to conventional production systems. Similar results have been reported by other researchers (Alipoor-Miandehi et al., 2014; Rezvani-Moghaddam et al., 2013a; Yarami and Sepaskhah, 2015). Animal manure is also best applied in tilapia ponds in a fine or colloidal dusty state. The small particles stimulate the growth of bacteria by providing enough surfaces for adhesion and mineralization, where the minerals are used for photosynthesis and phytoplankton production. In this regard, buffalo manure has not been recommended as an important organic fertilizer in tilapia ponds because it results in a reduction in DO due to the respiratory needs of the bacterium (Edwards et al., 1994b). The presence of tannin in buffalo manure browns the pond water, which reduces light penetration and, in turn, inhibits phytoplankton productivity. Buffalo manure is also characterized by large particles, a high C:N ratio (about 26:1) and poorly soluble nutrients. Shevgoor et al. (1994) reported that only 6% of the nitrogen in buffalo droppings was released as dissolved nitrogen and 35% of total phosphorus as soluble reactive phosphorus.

Under such conditions, the OD fell to almost 0 at dawn. Therefore, bison manure levels should not exceed 50 kg ha−1 per day (Edwards et al., 1994a). Supplementing buffalo manure with urea is also recommended (Edwards et al. 1996). Natural fertilizers such as manure have been used for centuries as it was the only form of nutrition that could be provided to plants before the invention of chemical fertilizers. After World War II, chemicals were added to natural fertilizers. After the war, with the advancement of technology, there was an explosive growth of artificial fertilizers due to improved productivity. But lately, there has been a massive awareness of the environmentally friendliness of using organic fertilizers and many are reusing these methods. Changes in soil compaction in response to farms, particularly after the third growing season, are a common phenomenon on saffron farms (Koocheki et al.

2017; Rahimi-Daghi et al., 2015). In general, for each unit of soil organic matter reduction, the negative effects of soil compaction on tuber growth are also increased (Koocheki and Seyyedi 2015b; Madahi et al., 2017; Mollafilabi and Khorramdel, 2016). Peat or lawn is a plant material that is only partially decomposed. It is a source of organic matter. Soils with higher levels of organic matter are less likely to compact, which improves soil aeration and water runoff, and promotes soil microbial health. [32] [11] It is sometimes considered the most widely used organic fertilizer and the most important organic additive by volume. In non-organic farming, a trade-off between the use of artificial and organic fertilizers is common, often with inorganic fertilizers, supplemented by the application of readily available organic substances, such as recycling crop residues or spreading manure. 4. FishmealFishmeal is a fast-release fertilizer rich in organic nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. It can improve soil health, increase fertility and allow plants to thrive. (fish fertilizer) The decrease in soil organic matter due to cultivation and erosion has been a major problem related to the sustainability of agriculture. Therefore, management practices that increase organic matter content were considered desirable for soil quality and productivity.

In addition, soil organic matter increases after repeated application of solid cattle manure. The effect of manure on soil pH is variable. Repeated application of nitrogen fertilizer can lead to soil acidification due to the acidity produced in the nitrification process, while organic matter added in the form of manure can help buffer the soil against a decrease in pH, manure that contains little organic matter and high ammoniacal nitrogen can lead to a decrease in pH due to acidity, which is formed when ammonium in soil is oxidized to nitrate [13]. In addition, Whalen et al. [14] noted that an immediate increase in pH of two acidic soils following the application of fresh livestock manure and concluded that the effects of manure on soil pH would depend on the source of the manure and soil properties.

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